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Ustz-shgird mktbi und sizning orningiz qndy ?

T`lim mussslrid Ustz-shgird mktbi fliyatining yolg qoyilgnig hli unch kop vqt bolmdi. Ushbu yangilik qisq furst ichid ozining ijbiy ntijlrini korst bshldi. Ushbu tizim t`lim siftini shirish, oqrtuvchilr ortsid ozr mliy-mtdik tjrib lmshinuv smrdrligini t`minlsh, yniqs, endigin ish bshlgn yosh oqituvchilrg fl pdggik yordm brishg xizmt qilishi biln hmiyatlidir.

Ustz-shgird tizimining kopchilik oqituvchilr tmnidn iliq kutib linishi v umumt`lim mktblrid yil syin uning fzlliklri boy korstib bryotgnligid uning xlqimiz trixiy qdriyatlri v n`nlrig uyg`un v hmhng eknligi sbb, dsk xt bolms krk. Ustz-shgirdlik n`nlri trixig nzr tshlsk, ilk uyg`nish dvrid Shrqd ustz-shgird munsbtlri liyjnblik v insniylik ssid qurilgnligig guvh bolish mumkin. Mshhur lim bu Mnsur ibn Irq ozining 12t srini shgirdi Bruniyg bg`ishldi, Bruniy hm ustzi Xrzmiyning strnmiyag id eng yirik sri Zij (strnmik jdvl)ni shrhlsh uchun ucht sr yozdi, Zmxshriy munsib shgirdlr tyyorlshni shxsiy bxtidn ustun qoydi.

XV sr yirik limlridn mir Kull ustz-shgirdlik munsbtlrining nzik jihtlri hqid fikr yuritib, t`lim bruvchi oz shgirdining bilim v trbiya drjsini nzrt qilib brishi, lzim korilgn pytd ung tgishli tuztishlr kiritishi zrur, dya uqtirdi.

Ort siyog klgn yevrplik lim G.Vmbrining 1867 yild Lypsigd nshr etilgn Chig`ty grmmtiksinmli kitbid ustz-shgirdlik munsbtlriningnzik jihtlri tog`risid tol v mntiqn niq fikr yuritilgn.

T`kidlsh lzimki, hr bir oqituvchig yakk trtibd yondshish, mtdik yordmning mliy yonltirilgnligi hmd mlk shirishg ehtiyoj szdign pdgglr uchun munsib pdgg-ustzlrni tnlsh imkniyatining mvjudligi yangich mlk shirish usuli hisblnmish Ustz-shgird tizimining ssiy ustunligi hisblndi. Shuningdk, Ustz-shgird mktbi yosh oqituvchi fliyatining mnitringi ntijlridn klib chiqqn hld mlk shirishni ehtiyojg qrb tshkil etish imknini brishi biln hm hmiyatlidir.

 

Ustz-shgird tizimid shgird-oqituvchining vziflri:

        ustzning mqsdi, xtti-hrktlrini tog`ri nglsh;

        ustzning tjriblri, hyot trzini sidqidildn orgnishg intilish;

        uning drslri, trbiyaviy stlrid bolib, ijbiy tmnlrini oz fliyatid qollshg hrkt qilish;

        zmnviy xbrt txnlgiyalridn fydlngn hld mutxssisligi, ksbiy pdggik bilimi, konikm v mlklrini tinmy shirib brishi, pdggik yangiliklridn dimiy xbrdr bolish;

        pdggik fliyatid erishgn brch yutuqlri yoki yol qoygn kmchiliklri yuzsidn ustzi biln fikrlshish, mslhtlshish.

Ustz-shgird tizimining ilmiy-uslubiy t`mintini mlg shirishd:

        mktb mtdik birlshmlri;

        tumn, shhr mtdik xnlri;

        tumn mtdik kngshlri;

        vilyat, Rspublik mtdik mrkzlri;

        pdggik fnlri ilmiy tdqiqt instituti, mlk shirish institutlri muhim rl` oynydi.

Ustz-shgird tizimi fliyatini tshkiliy-pdggik jiqtdn t`minlshd t`lim mussssi, mktb rhbriyati quyidgiishlrni mlg shirdi:

       shgird-oqituvchining ustz-oqituvchi biln bg`lnishi uchun shritlr yartib brish;

       shgird-oqituvchini mkgbning t`lim-trbiyaviy, ijtimiy fliyatig fl jlb etish;

        uning pdggik fliyatid qolg kiritgn yutuqlrini rg`btlntirib brish v qollb-quvvtlsh;

       shgird-oqituvchining smrli pdggik fliyati, erishgn yutuqlri hqid ustz-oqituvchig minntdrchilik mktubi jontish v hkz.

Ish jryonid ustzning vziflri:

        shgirdi hqid toliq m`lumtg eg bolish;

        hr bir shgird biln ishlsh yuzsidn lhid ish rjsig eg bolish;

        pdggik tjriblrni orgtish;

        rhbriyatg, pdggik v mtdik kngshlrd vqti-vqti biln hisbtlr brib brish;

        pdggik ksb sirlridn xbrdr qilib, uning ish shritig mslshib brishig yordm brish;

        shgirdi biln ozr tng pdggik hmkrlik qilishi, tshbbuslrini qollb-quvvtlshi, mustqil fliyat korstishlrig imkn brishi;

       shgird-oqituvchining kljgig ishnch biln qrsh v hkz.

Ustz-shgird tizimid ustz v shgird oqituvchilrning vziflrini niqlsh v ishlsh jryoni txnlgiyasi quyidgi bsqichlrdn ibrt bolishi mumkin:

Birinchi bsqich: Shgird-oqituvchini chiq yuz biln kutib lish, jmd uning shgird-oqituvchi bolgnligini tnishtirish.

Ikkinchi bsqich: Ustzni niqlsh v shgirdni ung biriktirish, ulrni tnishtirish.

Uchinchi bsqich: Ustz biln shgirdning ozr bvsit lq orntishi, fliyat mqsdi, ntijsini lyihlshtirish.

Tortinchi bsqich: Ustzning oz fliyatini rjlshtirish v uni mlg shirish shrt-shritlrini niqlsh.

Bshinchi bsqich: Shgirdning pdggik fliyatid ustz biln ijdiy hmkrligini yolg qoyish.

ltinchi bsqich: Ntijni niqlsh, bhlsh, umumlshtirish (rhbriyat, mtdist).

Yettinchi bsqich: Erishilgn yutuqlr v niqlngn kmchiliklrni thlil etish, hisbt v bildirishnmlr tyyorlsh.

Hr bir ksb fliyatid mlg shirgn ishlrning ntijsi rqli uning smrdrligi m`lum boldi. Ustz fliyati smrdrligi hm shgirdlrining bilim, konikm v mlksining qy drjd rivjlngnligi biln niqlndi.

Bugungi kund zmnviy shkldgi mktb uchun yuqri ksbiy lyoqtg eg bolgn tjribli, mhrtli, mustqil fikrlydign, nzriy bilimlrini mliyot biln chmbrchs bg`lgn hld drs lib brdign yetuk mutxssislr krk. Bundy mutxssislr ustz-oqituvchilr qolid trbiyalnishi eng yaxshi smrli usuldir.

dle 10.2
18-05-2015, 13:23
1215 ko'rildi
  

Hikmatli so'zlar7-05-2015, 16:30

 Bilim qaytarish va takrorlash

Tort yillik tajriba va yangi takliflar4-01-2015, 23:25

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